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Consequently, among his successors only Sigismund and Frederick III were still crowned Emperors in Rome and in Charles V was the last king to receive the Imperial Crown at the hands of the Pope in Bologna.
The Golden Bull remained effective as constitutional law until the Empire's dissolution in After his election, the new king would be crowned as King of the Romans Romanorum Rex , usually at Charlemagne's throne in Aachen Cathedral by the Archbishop of Cologne.
Though the ceremony was no more than a symbolic validation of the election result, it was solemnly celebrated. The details of Otto's coronation in are described by the medieval chronicler Widukind of Corvey in his Res gestae saxonicae.
The kings received the Imperial Crown from at least , at the coronation of Conrad II. In the Hohenstaufen candidate Philip of Swabia was crowned Rex Romanorum at Mainz Cathedral as was King Rupert centuries later , but he had another coronation in Aachen after he had prevailed against his Welf rival Otto IV.
At some time after the ceremony, the king would, if possible, cross the Alps , to receive coronation in Pavia or Milan with the Iron Crown of Lombardy as King of Italy.
Finally, he would travel to Rome and be crowned Emperor by the Pope. Because it was rarely possible for the elected King to proceed immediately to Rome for his crowning, several years might elapse between election and coronation, and some Kings never completed the journey to Rome at all.
As a suitable title for the King between his election and his coronation as Emperor, Romanorum Rex would stress the plenitude of his authority over the Empire and his warrant to be future Emperor Imperator futurus without infringing upon the Papal privilege.
Not all Kings of the Romans made this step, sometimes because of hostile relations with the Pope, or because either the pressure of business at home or warfare in Germany or Italy made it impossible for the King to make the journey.
In such cases, the king might retain the title "King of the Romans" for his entire reign. The title Romanorum Rex became functionally obsolete after , when the Pope permitted King Maximilian I to use the title of Electus Romanorum Imperator "elected Emperor of the Romans" after he failed in a good-faith attempt to journey to Rome.
At this time Maximilian also took the new title "King of the Germans" or "King in Germany" Germaniae rex , König in Germanien , but the latter was never used as a primary title.
The rulers of the Empire thereafter called themselves "Emperors" without going to Rome or soliciting Papal approval, taking the title as soon as they were crowned in Germany or upon the death of a sitting Emperor if they were elected as heir to the throne.
The regnal dates given are those between either the election as king or the death of his predecessor and either becoming emperor, deposition or death.
Disputed holders are in italics. After Charles V, Holy Roman Emperors assumed the title of "king of the Romans" at the same time as being elected emperor.
The titles of "Roman Emperor elect" erwählter Römischer Kaiser and "king in Germany" König in Germanien continued to be used as part of the full style of the emperors until When Francis II founded the Austrian Empire in , he used as his style for the last two years before the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire:.
The Holy Roman Empire was an elective monarchy. No person had a legal right to the succession simply because he was related to the current Emperor.
However, the Emperor could, and often did, have a relative usually a son elected to succeed him after his death. This elected heir apparent bore the title "King of the Romans".
The election was in the same form as that of the senior ruler, and theoretically meant that both men were equal co-rulers of the Empire.
In practice, however, the actual administration of the Empire was always managed by the Emperor, with at most certain duties delegated to the heir.
The following were subordinate kings to another Holy Roman Emperor usually, but not always, their father for the dates specified.
When Napoleon I, Emperor of the French , had a son and heir, Napoleon II —32 , he revived the title as King of Rome Roi de Rome , styling his son as such at birth.
The boy was often known colloquially by this title throughout his short life. He formed the Roman Senate with one hundred men and gave the inhabitants of Rome a body of laws.
After founding the city, Romulus invited merchants and men of all kinds to settle in Palatine Hill. As a consequence, the Sabine King, Titus Tatius attacked Rome and took the Capitol.
Finally, Romulus shared the kingship of the city with Titus Tatius until his death. The list of the seven kings of Rome, or eight if we include Titus Tatius, is as follows: Romulus, Numa Pompilius, Tullus Hostilius, Ancus Marcius, Tarquinius Priscus, Servius Tullius, Tarquinius Superbus.
No historian doubts the existence of the last three kings, since there is clear evidence of their reigns in Rome. The seven hills of Rome are associated, in legend, with the seven early kings.
Romulus was the legendary founder of Rome. According to legend, he and his twin brother, Remus, were raised by wolves.
After founding Rome, Romulus returned to his native city to recruit residents—most who followed him were men.
To secure wives for his citizens, Romulus stole women from the Sabines in an attack known as the "rape of the Sabine women.
Following a truce, the Sabine king of Cures, Tatius, co-ruled with Romulus until his death in B. Numa Pompilius was a Sabine Roman, a religious figure who was very different from the warlike Romulus.
Under Numa, Rome experienced 43 years of peaceful cultural and religious growth. He moved the Vestal Virgins to Rome, founded religious colleges and the Temple of Janus, and added January and February to the calendar to bring the number of days in a year to Tullus Hostilius, whose existence is in some doubt, was a warrior king.
Little is known about him except that he was elected by the Senate, doubled the population of Rome, added Alban nobles to the Senate of Rome, and built the Curia Hostilia.
Though Ancus Martius or Marcius was elected to his position, he was also a grandson of Numa Pompilius. The tribune was second in rank to the king and also possessed the power to convene the Curiate Assembly and lay legislation before it.
Another officer appointed by the king was the praefectus urbi , who acted as the warden of the city.
When the king was absent from the city, the prefect held all of the king's powers, even to the point of being bestowed with imperium while inside the city.
The king was the sole person empowered to appoint patricians to the Senate. The king's imperium granted him both military powers as well as qualified him to pronounce legal judgment in all cases as the chief justice of Rome.
Although he could assign pontiffs to act as minor judges in some cases, he had supreme authority in all cases brought before him, both civil and criminal.
This made the king supreme in times of both war and peace. While some writers believed there was no appeal from the king's decisions, others believed that a proposal for appeal could be brought before the king by any patrician during a meeting of the Curiate Assembly.
To assist the king, a council advised the king during all trials, but this council had no power to control the king's decisions.
Also, two criminal detectives Quaestores Parridici were appointed by him as well as a two-man criminal court Duumviri Perduellionis which oversaw for cases of treason.
Under the kings, the Senate and Curiate Assembly had very little power and authority; they were not independent bodies in that they possessed the right to meet together and discuss questions of state.
They could only be called together by the king and could only discuss the matters the king laid before them.
While the Curiate Assembly did have the power to pass laws that had been submitted by the king, the Senate was effectively an honorable council.
It could advise the king on his action but, by no means, could prevent him from acting. The only thing that the king could not do without the approval of the Senate and Curiate Assembly was to declare war against a foreign nation.
These issues effectively allowed the King to more or less rule by decree with the exception of the above-mentioned affairs.
Whenever a Roman king died, Rome entered a period of interregnum. Supreme power in the state would be devolved to the Senate, which had the task of finding a new king.
The Senate would assemble and appoint one of its own members as the interrex to serve for a period of five days with the sole purpose of nominating the next king of Rome.
After the five-day period, the interrex would appoint with the Senate's consent another Senator for another five-day term.
This process would continue until the election of a new king. Once the interrex found a suitable nominee for the kingship, he would bring the nominee before the Senate and the Senate would examine him.
Once a candidate was proposed to the Curiate Assembly, the people of Rome could either accept or reject the King-elect. If accepted, the King-elect did not immediately take office: two additional acts had to take place before he was invested with the full regal authority and power.
First, it was necessary to obtain the divine will of the gods respecting his appointment by means of the auspices , since the king would serve as high priest of Rome.
An augur performed this ceremony by conducting the King-elect to the citadel where he was placed on a stone seat as the people waited below.
Second the imperium had to be conferred upon the King. The Curiate Assembly's vote only determined who was to be King, but that act did not bestow the powers of the king upon him.
Accordingly, the King himself proposed to the Curiate Assembly a bill granting him imperium, and the Curiate Assembly, by voting in favour of the law, would grant it.
In theory, the people of Rome elected their leader, but the Senate had most of the control over the process. Since Rome's records were destroyed in BC when the city was sacked , it is impossible to know for certain how many kings actually ruled the city, or if any of the deeds attributed to the individual kings, by later writers, are accurate.
Titus Tatius , King of the Sabines, was also joint king of Rome with Romulus for five years, until his death.
However he is not traditionally counted among the seven kings of Rome. The overthrow of the Roman monarchy of Tarquinius Superbus led to a limited separation of the powers mentioned above.
The actual title of king was retained for the rex sacrorum , who formally remained Rome's first priest. He was forbidden any political or military career, except for a seat in the senate.
However, the Roman desire to prevent the kingship from becoming important went so far that, even in the area of religion, the king of sacrifices was formally, in all but protocol, subordinated to the first of the pontiffs , the pontifex maximus whose position in origin, rather than with the name of priest, is better described as "minister of religion" , to the extent that at some point in history, the regia or royal palace at the Forum Romanum, originally inhabited by the king of sacrifices,  was ceded to the pontifex maximus.
Further, the consuls retained religious roles which were considered so important that the office of interrex was retained for the opening prayer of "electional" assemblies in the event that both consuls died in office, and the ritual of driving a nail into the temple of Jupiter sometimes even induced a dictatorship.
The king of sacrifices retained some religious rites only he could perform, and acted as quasi- flamen to Janus. The position seems to have continued in existence until the official adoption of the Christian religion.